Презентація на тему «British influence in the global development of science»



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British influence in the global development of science

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British influence in the global development of science

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to poke out – виглядати, висовуватись;
virtually [ˈvɜːtʃʊəlɪ] – фактично, практично;
human endeavor [ɪnˈdɛvə] – людська діяльність;
motion – рух;
gravity [ˈɡrævɪtɪ] – сила тяжіння;
DNA – ДНК;
application [plɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n] – програми;
persued by people – проведені людьми, «переслідувані» людьми;
controversial [kɒntrəˈvːɜʃ(ə)l] – спірний, дискусійний;
regard to – щодо, відноситись до;
to lay the foundation - закладати фундамент;
force – сила;
the forces acting upon[əˈpɒn] - сили, що діють на ;
influential [ɪnflʊˈɛnʃ(ə)l] – впливовий;
in response to – у відповідь ;
polymath [ˈpɒlɪmæɒ] – ерудит;
via [ˈvaɪə] – через;
immense [ɪˈmɛns] – величезний, колосальний;
cargo [ˈkɑːɡəʊ] – вантаж;
vicinity [vɪˈsɪnɪtɪ] – навколишній район, прилеглий район;
directly [d(a)ɪˈrɛktlɪ] – відразу, негайно;
simultaneously [sɪm(ə)lˈteɪnɪəslɪ] – оддночасно, синхронно;
audible [ˈɔːdɪb(ə)l] – звуковий;
the incandescent light bulb – лампа розжарювання;
relativity [rɛləˈtɪvɪtɪ] - теорія відносності;
equation [ɪˈkweɪʒ(ə)n] – рівняння;
subsequent [ˈsʌbsɪkwənt] – наступний, подальший;
breakthrough [ˈbreɪkθruː] – прорив;
citation [saɪˈteɪʃ(ə)n] – цитування, посилання (на автора);

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7 British Inventions

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Newton's Laws

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Programmable Computer

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World Wide Web

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Television

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Steam Locomotive

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Theory of Evolution

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Telephone

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Important advances made by people from the UK
There are many others major theories, discoveries and applications advanced by scientists from the Great Britain.

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The discovery of hydrogen, by Henry Cavendish (1731–1810).

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The electric motor, by Michael Faraday (1771–1867), who largely made electricity viable for use in technology.

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The theory of aerodynamics, by Sir George Cayley (1773–1857).

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The first commercial electrical telegraph, co-invented by Sir William Fothergill Cooke (1806–79) and Charles Wheatstone (1802–75).

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The invention of the incandescent light bulb, by Joseph Swan (1826–1914).

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The unification of electromagnetism, by James Clerk Maxwell (1831–79).

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The discovery of penicillin, by biologist and pharmacologist, Sir Alexander Fleming (1881–1955).

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The first meaningful synthesis of quantum mechanics with special relativity by Paul Dirac (1902–84) in the equation named after him, and his subsequent prediction of antimatter.

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The invention of the jet engine, by Frank Whittle (1907–96).

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The invention of the hovercraft, by Christopher Cockerell (1910–99).

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The structure of DNA, by Francis Crick (1916–2004) and others.

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The theoretical breakthrough of the Higgs mechanism to explain electroweak symmetry breaking and why some particles have mass, by Peter Higgs (1929-).

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Theories in cosmology, quantum gravity and black holes, by Stephen Hawking (1942–).

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To sum-up, nowadays, The UK has the most productive research base amongst the G7 (Group of Seven) and other leading research nations. The UK accounts for 3.2% of global expenditure on research and development and has less than 1% of the world's population, but produces:
•t6.4% of global journal articles
•t11.6% citations
•t15.8% of the world's most highly-cited articles.